Want to know who buys your "elected" Officials ? Click here and Follow the Money!

PAYMENT vs DISCHARGE
In short, real money like silver and gold coins PAY OFF debts, while Debt notes such as Federal Reserve Notes, merely DISCHARGE debts. And what is PAID by a free man, is NOT subject to State regulation (i.e. drugs, guns, etc.). ONLY when you DISCHARGE a debt instead of paying it off, the State REGULATES the thing that "bought" with DEBT NOTES.

In the case of Stanek v. White, 172 Minn. 390, 215 H.W. 784, the court explained the legal distinction between the words "payment" and "discharge": "There is a distinction between a `debt discharged' and a `debt paid.' When discharged the debt still exists though divested of its character as a legal obligation during the operation of the discharge. Something of the original vitality of the debt continues to exist, which may be transferred, even though the transferee takes it subject to its disability incident to the discharge. The fact that it carries something which may be a consideration for a new promise to pay, so as to make an otherwise worthless promise a legal obligation, makes it the subject of transfer by assignment."

Gibbons v Ogden 1824 supreme court “Persons are not the subjects of commerce…” “There is a distinction between a debt discharged and one paid. When discharged, the debt still exists, though divested of its character as a legal obligation during the operation of the discharge.” Stanek v. White (1927), 172 Minn. 390, 215 N.W. 781.

Ballentines Law Dictionary, 3rd Edition: Dollar. The legal currency of the United States; State v Downs, 148 Ind 324, 327; the unit of money consisting of one hundred cents. The aggregate of specific coins which add up to one dollar. 36 Am J1st Money § 8. In the absence of qualifying words, it cannot mean promissory notes, bonds, or other evidences of debt. 36 AM J 1st.

The privilege against self-incrimination is neither accorded to the passive resistant, nor to the person who is ignorant of his rights, nor to one indifferent thereto. It is a FIGHTING clause. It's benefits can be retained only by sustained combat. It CANNOT BE CLAIMED BY ATTORNEY OR SOLICITOR. It is valid only when insisted npon by a BELLIGERENT CLAIMANT IN PERSON." McAlister vs. Henkel, 201 U.S. 90, 26 S.Ct. 385, 50 L. Ed. 671; Commonwealth vs. Shaw, 4 Cush. 594, 50 Am.Dec. 813; Orum vs. State, 38 Ohio App. 171, 175 N.E. 876

The privilege against self-incrimination is neither accorded to the passive resistant, nor to the person who is ignorant of his rights, nor to one indifferent thereto. It is a FIGHTING clause. It's benefits can be retained only by sustained combat. It CANNOT BE CLAIMED BY ATTORNEY OR SOLICITOR. It is valid only when insisted npon by a BELLIGERENT CLAIMANT IN PERSON." McAlister vs. Henkel, 201 U.S. 90, 26 S.Ct. 385, 50 L. Ed. 671; Commonwealth vs. Shaw, 4 Cush. 594, 50 Am.Dec. 813; Orum vs. State, 38 Ohio App. 171, 175 N.E. 876.

Subject: 1933 Bankruptcy was a staged event = fraud by trickery, collusion, R.I.C.O.
To:

Page 400

CONGRESSIONAL RECORD – HOUSE DECEMBER 13, 1932

Proof the 1933 Bankruptcy was a staged event as the international bankers met at Basel. This from the Congressional Record – House: December 13, 1932.

...whereas such agreements entailed the surrender of rights of the United States and whereas the said agreement so made have never been disclosed or submitted to the Congress of the United States for ratification and have never become law in the United States: and whereas a second conference, composed of a committee appointed by direction of the aforesaid London Conference under stipulation it should consist of representatives nominated by the governors of the central bank interested and that it was to take place at Basel under the Bank of International Settlements; and whereas Albert H. Wiggin appeared at the said conference at Basel as the representative of the United States on the nomination of Gerorge L Harrison, of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York an individual who had no power to make the said nomination and whereas control of all the banking system of the United States including the fiscal agents of the United States Government with their control of United States Treasury funds was given to this London Conference committee , consisting of Albert H. Wiggin, Alberto Beneduce, Dr. R. G. Bindschedler, E. Fringul, P. Hofste de de Groot, Walter T. Layton, C. Melchoir, E. Moreau, O Rybeck, T. Tanka, upon which the so-called United States representative was out numbered nine to one by the control of all banking system and all the wealth of the United States and control of the Untied States Treasury was thus given to foreign powers;; and whereas actions taken by the said committee made it impossible for the banks of the United States to withdraw the funds of their depositors and other funds from Germany and obliged the banks of the United States continually to maintain the volume of their funds in Germany and made it impossible for the Treasury of the United States to withdraw moneys unlawfully taken from it and placed in Germany; and whereas such actions in regard to the banks and banking system of the United States were unlawful and where unnecessary for any benefit to Germany, whose economic and budgetary situation according to the report of the London conference did not justify a lack of confidence; and whereas the said actions were taken as measures of deflation against the American people to impound United States funds in Germany under foreign control, to paralize United States Banks, to injure the United States Treasury, and to keep the United States in a condition of depression until misery and fear and starvation would drive the people of the United States into submission and compel them to cancel the war debt owed to them; and whereas the said Wiggin had no lawful power to represent the baning system of the United States at the said conference at Basel; and whereas the nomination of the said Wiggin by an indiviual at the direction of the ministters of Great Britian, France, Germany, Belgium, Itally, Japan and the United States was unlawful; and whereas the agreements made and the action taken by the London Conference committe at Basel have never been submitted tot he Congress of the United States; and whereas billions of dollars in bank deposits have been lost by American citizens on account of the said agreements, and many United States banks have failed by reason of them and the Reconstruction jFinance Corporation has made loans of public money to banks and institutions injured by them and the public debt of the Untied States and the deficit in the United States Treasury have been increased by the actions of the London Conference committee at BAsel; and whereas the said actions were taken on the intiative and by the direction of the said Hoover; and whereas the still-holding agreements entered into at Basel by the said Wiggin was unlawful and was prepared concurren with the terms of the Hoover moratorium proposal by the said Hoover and others and was presented to the London conference by Henry L. Stimsipation as a joint product of British and American partticipation and was a part of a conspiracy designed to force the United States into submission to foreign nations and international bankers and thus to obtain cancellation of the war debts; and whereas in violation of the Constitution and laws of the United States, Herbert Hoover, President of the United States, initiated the London Conference and the Prearranged events which flowed from it; and whereas the London Conference was deceitfullytly initiated by the said Hoover for the purpose of securing cancellation of the war debts as shown by facts and circumstances; and whereas the Herold Tribune published a report at the close of the London Conference, a part of which reads as follows:
"If, as these British leaders expect, the committee recommends a considerable extension of credits to Germany ; if it indicates, further, that permanent amelioration of that situation depends upon reconsideration of the war debts and reparations problem, and if the interested powers take action along these lines the British admit that something indeed will have been accomplished-"

The record continues to include the impeachment of President Hoover for violations to the Constitution and laws of the United States, conducting conversations ignominious to the United States, attempting to negotiate treaties and agreements ignominious to the United States for the benefit of foreign nations and individuals, which violations make him guilty of high crimes and misdemeanors subject to impeachment;... it continues Edward Johnston you are my favorite and intelligent non person... The Man! Thank you for educating me to the correct way!

TO ALL THE KIDS WHO WERE BORN IN THE 1930's 40's, 50's, 60's and 70's 

TO ALL THE KIDS WHO WERE BORN IN THE
1930's 40's, 50's, 60's and 70's !!
First, we survived being born to mothers who smoked and/or drank while they carried us.
They took aspirin, ate blue cheese dressing, tuna from a can, and didn't get tested for diabetes.
Then after that trauma, our baby cribs were covered with bright colored lead-based paints.
We had no childproof lids on medicine bottles, doors or cabinets and when we rode our bikes, we had no helmets, not to mention, the risks we took hitchhiking.
As children, we would ride in cars with no seat belts or air bags.
Riding in the back of a pick up on a warm day was always a special treat.
We drank water from the garden hose and NOT from a bottle.
We shared one soft drink with four friends, from one bottle and NO ONE actually died from this.
We ate cupcakes, white bread and real butter and drank soda pop with sugar in it, but we weren't overweight because......
WE WERE ALWAYS OUTSIDE PLAYING!!
We would leave home in the morning and play all day, as long as we were back when the streetlights came on.
No one was able to reach us all day. And we were O.K.
We would spend hours building our go-carts out of scraps and then ride down the hill, only to find out we forgot the brakes. After running into the bushes a few times, we learned to solve the problem.
We did not have Playstations, Nintendo's, X-boxes, no video games at all, no 99 channels on cable, no video tape movies, no surround sound, no cell phones, no personal computers, no Internet or Internet chat rooms..........WE HAD FRIENDS and we went outside and found them!
We fell out of trees, got cut, broke bones and teeth and there were no
lawsuits from these accidents.
We ate worms and mud pies made from dirt, and the worms did not live in us forever.
We were given BB guns for our 10th birthdays,
made up games with sticks and tennis balls and although we were told it would happen, we did not put out very many eyes.
We rode bikes or walked to a friend's house and knocked on the door or rang the bell, or just yelled for them!
Little League had tryouts and not everyone made the team. Those who didn't had to learn to deal with disappointment. Imagine that!!
The idea of a parent bailing us out if we broke the law was unheard of. They actually sided with the law!
This generation has produced some of the best risk-takers, problem solvers and inventors ever!
The past 50 years have been an explosion of innovation and new ideas
We had freedom, failure, success and responsibility, and we learned
HOW TO
DEAL WITH IT ALL!
And YOU are one of them!
CONGRATULATIONS!
You might want to share this with others who have had the luck to grow up as kids, before the lawyers and the government regulated our lives for our own good.
and while you are at it, forward it to your kids so they will know how brave their parents were.
Kind of makes you want to run through the house with scissors, doesn't it?!
PS -The big type is because your eyes are shot at your age.

whereas : IT IS ALL ABOUT BONDS

What they’re doing in these courts is all about Bonds. When you go into the courtroom after you’re arrested, they use two different sets of Bonds. What they do when your arrested they fill out a “Bid Bond”. The United States District Court uses 273, 274 & 275. SF = “Standard Form”. Standard Form 273, Standard Form 274 & Standard Form 275. This is the United States District Court.

There is another set of Bonds and they are all put out by GSA = General Services Administration. I’m just talking off the top of my head because I have all of this stuff memorized. GSA Form SF24 is the “Bid Bond”, everyone should have a copy of the Bid Bond. The “Performance Bond” is SF25. The “Payment Bond” is SF25A and put out by the GSA.

O.K. So, what are they doing with these Bonds? What’s going on in the courtroom is that they are suing you for a debt collection. If you look at these Bonds, everyone of these Bonds: the “Bid Bond”, the “Performance Bond” & the “Payment Bond”, all have a “PENAL SUM” attached to it. The reason for the “Penal Sum” is if you don’t pay the Debt, you go into “Default Judgment”.

That is what is going on in the courtroom. That is why all of these guys are sitting in prison wondering what’s going on! If you go in and argue jurisdiction or refuse to answer questions that the judge or the court addresses to you, they will find you in contempt of court and they will put you in jail. What they do is arrest you, then they hold you, basically until the suit has been completed. Once they get “Default Judgment” on you because of your failure to pay the Debt, they put you in prison. Theattorneys are there to create a smoke screen.

What attorneys have been trained to do is to lead you into “Dishonor” or “Default Judgment”. Then the court puts you into prison then they sell your “Default Judgment”.

Who do they sell it to?

Believe it or not, the U.S. District Court buys all of these State Court Judgments. I don’t know why noone has found this out before. There are about 300 “re-insurance” companies that buy these bonds. They are all ‘insurance” companies. These are the people that are buying these Bonds when you went into “Default Judgment” and they cannot buy these Bonds unless they are Certified by the Secretary of the Treasury.

What are they doing with these Bonds? They have regulations governing these Bonds – there are 2,000 regulations governing these Bonds.

Commercial Paper; Negotiable Instruments - anything you put your signature on is a Negotiable Instrument under the Uniform Commercial Code which is the Lex Mercantorium. Its Mercantile Civil Law.

The reason they use Lex Merchantorium in the court room is because everyone of you are Merchant’s at Law and Merchants at Law is anyone who holds themselves out to be an expert.Because you use commercial paper on a daily basis, you are considered to be an ‘expert’. This is also why they are not telling you what is really going on in the courtroom. You are presumed to know this stuff because you hold yourself out to be an expert by using commercial paper every day.

Every time you put your signature on a piece of paper, you are creating a Negotiable Instrument. Some are Non-Negotiable and some are Negotiable. Every time you endorse something, you are acting as an accommodation party or an accommodation maker under UCC 3-419.

An accommodation party is anyone who loans their signature to another party. Read UCC 3-419, it tells you what an accommodation maker is and what an accommodation party is. When you loan your signature to them, they can then re-write your signature on any document they want and that’s exactly what they are doing.

What the Federal Courts are doing is they are buying up these state court default judgments, called ‘criminal cases’ to cover up what they are doing. Actually, they are civil cases.

If you read “Clerk’s Praxis”, you find that what they call ‘criminal’ is all civil, they just call it criminal to cover up what their doing. If you don’t pay the debt you go to prison, bottom line.

I know I’ve been there. EVERYBODY IS FEEDING OFF OF THE PRISON SYSTEM: ALL OF THE MAJOR CORPORATIONS ARE FEEDING OFF OF THE PRISON SYSTEM.

How many of you have heard of REIT = Real Estate Investment Trust or PZN which means Prison Trust? Prisoners are real estate? They own all the real estate because they hold the Bonds on them. You haven’t redeemed your Bond, so they didn’t close your account.

Here’s what goes on: A contractor comes in or any corporation could come in and tender a Bid Bond to the US District Court and they buy up these court judgments and anytime you issue a Bid Bond there has to be a reinsure. So they get a Reinsurance Company to come in and act as Surety for the Bid Bond, then they bring in a Performance Bond. All of these Bonds; Bid, Payment & Performance are all Surety Bonds and anytime you issue a Bid Bond it has to have a Surety guaranteeing or reinsuring the Bid Bond via issuing a Performance Bond.

Then they get an underwriter and that would be either an Investment Broker or an Investment Banker. They come in and underwrite the Performance Bond which is reinsuring the Bid Bond.

What does the underwriter do with the Performance Bond? The underwriter takes the 3 Bonds and pools them and creates what is known as Mortgaged Backed Securities. When you pool these MBS, they are called BONDS and are sold to a company called TBA, which is the Bond Market Association - this is an actual Corporation.

These converted Bonds, now MBS’ are investment securities and being sold the international level. CCA is one of the tickers on the NY Stock Exchange. Others include; CWX, CWD & CWG. When it goes to Frankfurt = CWG, when it goes to Berlin = CWD and so on.

Remember, everything is commercial. 7211 7 CFR says that all crimes are commercial. If you read that carefully it says kidnapping, robbery, extortion, murder, etc. are all commercial crimes. Thus, you are funding the whole enchilada simply because you got into Default Judgment when you went into court and failed to redeem the Bond.

This is why people don’t win in court; cause they don’t redeem the Bond. You are the Principal upon which all money circulates, but you don’t want to start arguing with the court about that.

They are drafting you for performance. So, anytime the court asks you to do something they are drafting you for performance and if you don’t perform, you get into dishonor by non acceptance.They are making a formal presentment under 3-501 of the UCC so they can charge you and they USE the word “charge”. They use the same commercial words on your Indictment, Information and Complaint. They use the word “charge”, i.e., “the following charges”, “…he has two counts of charges”, etc.

Be as gentle as a dove and wise as a serpent. You can’t act like an insurgent or belligerent. If you do, they will treat you like one; they’ll beat you up.

What you want to do is settle the account…go to full settlement and closure; you’re running the account, you’re the Fiduciary Trustee over the account – tell them what to do. You’re the Principal and owner of the account, tell them what to do – tell them you want full settlement and closure of the account. You have to do this from the get-go.

In order to win in court you have to redeem the Bond.

Here is where to begin: Start with what we call a conditional acceptance.

With the conditional acceptance you can say: “I’m more than happy to give you my name, if you can show that charging papers have been put into the court record. I have not seen any papers that show any charges exist.”

That’s a “Negative Averment”. What you are doing is rebutting the presumption that they have charges against you. They work off presumptions. They don’t have to have anything. You must rebut their presumptions.

I went down there and asked them for the Bid Bond. I said I want the Bid Bond back. I asked for full settlement and closure of the account. It’s your money that they create and the same thing is going on in the Banks and with these Bonds - they monetize these Bonds.

Then ask for legal counsel. The reason why you have to have an attorney, and I cannot emphasize this too strongly, is because the attorney while in a courtroom is they are working on the public side and you are working on the private side. The court cannot talk to you except through your attorney. You need a mouth piece; a microphone. That is what attorneys are - a mouthpiece. Everyone on the Public side is insolvent and bankrupt. You are not.

This is situation is called a Fiction-of-Law. They will not allow you to defeat this “Fiction-Of-Law”. Why? In Admiralty Maritime Law everything is colorable. It has the appearance of being real but is not real.

They will appoint legal counsel for you. You then instruct the attorney that you are doing a “LETTER OF ROGATORY” or letter of advice. This is also called an “Acceptance for Honor” and you want an accounting of what the total amount of the Bill is post settlement and closure of this account.

Then you give your CUSIP and AUTOTIS number and your case number.

Here’s the wording you use: “I accept your charge(s) for Value and Consideration in return for Post Settlement and Closure of Case # , account# 123-45-6789 [put down your 9 digit social security number] and put down CUSIP# [your ssn] & AUTOTRIS# [your ssn w/o dashes]. Please us my exemption for full settlement and closure of this account as this account is prepaid and exempt from levy. (Date it and endorse it as the Authorized Representative.)

(AUTOTRIS means Automated Tracking Identification System. This is the same as your social security number without the dashes. When I said that they didn’t even want to talk to me…when you sayCUSIP & AUTOTRIS they know exactly what you’re talking about. CUSIP is The COMMITTEE ON UNIFORM SECURITIES IDENTIFICATION PROCESSES. . CUSIP uses your Social Security Number to identify you because the Birth Certificate is a Security. It is an investment security and they have all the original Birth Certificates which are registered at the State level with the Department of Human Recourses and then they go to the Department of Commerce and the Federal level and then to the DTC (Depository Trust Corporation).

Judges and lawyers don’t understand commercial law. They do not teach commercial law at law school.They have a special school for them and it’s on a “need to know” basis. The law always assumes that you know, since you were doing this since you were born until you reach the age of accountability, which is 18 years of age or what they call adulthood. If your holding yourself out and using commercial paper on a daily basis, that legal definition makes you an expert or you wouldn’t be using it, so they presume that when you go into the courtroom you know all this stuff.

They have to give you an out. Whenever you create a liability, you always have to create a remedy. They’re on the Public side of the accounting ledger. You are on the Private side.

You have an account and your account is a “Demand Deposit” account and you are insured by the FDIA and the FDIC. The “Federal Depository Insurance Act” which insures the FDIC which is the Federal Depository Insurance Corporation under Title 12; they have a $10 Million Dollar Policy on you and YOU’RE WORTH MORE DEAD THAN YOU ARE ALIVE.

THEY WILL NEVER TELL YOU THIS STUFF!!

NOTE: All tradable Securities must be assigned a CUSIP NUMBER before it can be offered to investors. Birth Certificates and Social Security Applications are converted into Government Securities; assigned a CUSIP NUMBER; grouped into lots and then are marketed as a Mutual Fund Investment. Upon maturity, the profits are moved into a GOVERNMENT CESTA QUE TRUST and if you are still alive, the certified documents are reinvested. It is the funds contained in this CESTA QUE TRUST that the Judge, Clerk and County Prosecutor are really after or interested in! This Trust actually pays all of your debts but nobody tells you that because the Elite consider those assets to be their property and the Federal Reserve System is responsible for the management of those Investments.

Social Security; SSI; SSD; Medicare and Medicaid are all financed by the Trust. The government makes you pay TAXES and a potion of your wages supposedly to pay for these services, which they can borrow at any time for any reason since they cannot access the CESTA QUE TRUST to finance their Wars or to bail out Wall Street and their patron Corporations.

The public is encouraged to purchase all kinds of insurance protection when the TRUST actually pays for all physical damages; medical costs; new technology and death benefits. The hype to purchase insurance is a ploy to keep us in poverty and profit off our stupidity because the Vatican owns the controlling interest in all Insurance Companies.

You may receive a monthly statement from a Mortgage Company; Loan Company or Utility Company, which usually has already been paid by the TRUST. Almost all of these corporate businesses double dip and hope that you have been conditioned well enough by their Credit Scams, to pay them a second time. Instead of paying that Statement next time, sign it approved and mail it back to them. If they then contact you about payment, ask them to send you a TRUE BILL instead of a Statement and you will be glad to pay it? A Statement documents what was due and paid, whereas a TRUE BILL represents only what is due. Banks and Utility Companies have direct access into these Cesta Que Trusts and all they needed was your name; social security number and signature.

FORBIDDEN KNOWLEDGE.
Shortly after the "bank holiday" in 1933, orders from the FDR White House suddenly demanded without explanation that all copies of this book be withdrawn from the Government Printing Office and the Army posts, to be suppressed and destroyed. So began the demagogic descent of the United States and the subversion of the Constitution into Americanized National Socialism, bankruptcy and the continued state of national emergency that we have experienced as a nation.

Here's a definition of Democracy from that Soldiers Training Manual issued by the War Department, November 30, 1928:

TM2000-25: 118-120 DEMOCRACY: A government of the masses. Authority derived through mass meeting or any other form of direct expression. Results in mobocracy. Attitude toward property is communistic- negating property rights. Attitude toward law is that the will of the majority shall regulate, whether it be based upon deliberation or governed by passion, prejudice, and impulse, without restraint or regard to consequences. Results in demagogism, license, agitation, discontent, anarchy.

WAR DEPARTMENT TM_2000-25, issued November 30, 1928
www.barefootsworld.net/tm_2000-25.html

Training Manual No. TM 2000-25 on Citizenship, ... TRAINING MANUAL } WAR DEPARTMENT, No. 2000-25 } WASHINGTON, ... — Representative government ----- 118-135 X ...
Republic Truth vs. Democracy Fraud
rvbeypublications.com/.../republicweb.pub.pdf

TM2000-25: 118 – 120 ... TM2000-25: 120 – 121 REPUBLIC Authority is derived through the election by the people of public officials best fit-ted to represent them.

WAR DEPARTMENT TM_2000-25, issued November 30, 1928
www.barefootsworld.net/tm_2000-25.html

... U.S. History and the Constitution was compiled and issued by the U.S. War Department, November 30, 1928, ... Training Manual, presented here ... 30-day training ...
REPUBLIC VS. DEMOCRACY, U.S.ARMY ANALYSIS
www.1215.org/lawnotes/lawnotes/repvdem.htm

... by the then War Department, Washington, D.C., November 30, ... Definition of DEMOCRACY. NOTE. Here ... Manual of Citizenship Training The use of the ...

Judge Rules that Government Debt is Covered by FDCPA, Forcing Collection Agency to Defend

Statutes at Large Public Law Chapter 48 48 Stat. 112 All debts are to be discharged dollar for dollar....there is no gold...no money...MONEY.

“It has been settled beyond controversy that a national bank, under federal law being limited in its powers and capacity, cannot lend its credit by guaranteeing the debts of another. All such contracts entered into by its officers are ultra vires . . .” Howard & Foster Co. v. Citizens Nat’l Bank of Union, 133 SC 202, 130 SE 759(1926).“. . . checks, drafts, money orders, and bank notes are not lawful money of the United States . . .” State v. Neilon, 73 Pac 324, 43 Ore 168.

U.S. Supreme Court, Memphis Bank & Trust Co. v. Garner, 459 U.S. 392 (1983) “The Tennessee bank tax violates the immunity of obligations (federal reserve notes 31USC3124 & 18USC8) of the United States from state and local taxation.”

“Federal Reserve Notes are not dollars.” Russell L. Munk, Assistant General Counsel, Department of the Treasury, February 18, 1977.

“The term 'dollars' likewise is incorrect, which, according to constitutional definition, are monetary units, used in exchange, backed by gold and silver. Our present day fiat issues are supported by more printed paper of the same; therefore, they are correctly termed Federal Reserve Notes (FRN), not dollars. Robert P. Vichas, Handbook of Financial Mathematics, Formulas, and Tables (1979), p. 420.

“What is a dollar? It's just something artificial we throw out there. What you're doing is you're fooling people into thinking they have purchasing power, when in fact they do not.” Denis Karnofsky, Chief Economic Advisor, St. Louis, St. Louis Federal Reserve Bank (June 10, 1978).

Ballentines Law Dictionary, 3rd Edition: Dollar. The legal currency of the United States; State v Downs, 148 Ind 324, 327; the unit of money consisting of one hundred cents. The aggregate of specific coins which add up to one dollar. 36 Am J1st Money § 8. In the absence of qualifying words, it cannot mean promissory notes, bonds, or other evidences of debt. 36 AM J 1st Money § 8.

“Federal Reserve Bank notes, and other notes constituting a part of common currency of country, are recognized as good tender for money, unless specially objected to.” MacLeod v. Hoover (1925), 159 La. 244, 105 S. 305.

BANKS cannot lend credit:

“In the federal courts, it is well established that a national bank has not power to lend its credit to another by becoming surety, indorser, or guarantor for him.” Farmers and Miners Bank v. Bluefield Nat ‘l Bank, 11 F 2d 83, 271 U.S. 669.

“A national bank has no power to lend its credit to any person or corporation . . .” Bowen v. Needles Nat. Bank, 94 F 925, 36 CCA 553, certiorari denied in 20 S.Ct 1024, 176 US 682, 44 LED 637.

“A bank may not lend its credit to another, even though such a transaction turns out to have been of benefit to the bank, and in support of this a list of cases might be cited, which would look like a catalog of ships.” [Emphasis added] Norton Grocery Co. v. Peoples Nat. Bank, 144 SE 505, 151 Va 195.

“Neither, as included in its powers not incidental to them, is it a part of a bank’s business to lend its credit. If a bank could lend its credit as well as its money, it might, if it received compensation and was careful to put its name only to solid paper, make a great deal more than any lawful interest on its money would amount to. If not careful, the power would be the mother of panics,... Indeed, lending credit is the exact opposite of lending

money, which is the real business of a bank, for while the latter creates a liability in favor of the bank, the former gives rise to a liability of the bank to another.

1 Morse, Banks and Banking, 5th Ed. Sec 65; Magee, Banks and Banking, 3rd Ed. Sec 248.”

American Express Co. v. Citizens State Bank, 194 NW 429.

“It is not within those statutory powers for a national bank, even though solvent, to lend its credit to another in any of the various ways in which that might be done.” Federal Intermediate Credit Bank v. L ‘Herrison, 33 F 2d 841, 842 (1929)

“It has been settled beyond controversy that a national bank, under federal law being limited in its powers and capacity, cannot lend its credit by guaranteeing the debts of another. All such contracts entered into by its officers are ultra vires . . .” Howard & Foster Co. v. Citizens Nat’l Bank of Union, 133 SC 202, 130 SE 759(1926).“. . . checks, drafts, money orders, and bank notes are not lawful money of the United States . . .” State v. Neilon, 73 Pac 324, 43 Ore 168.

,Zinc Carbonate Co. v. First National Bank, 103 Wis 125, 79 NW 229. “Mr. Justice Marshall said: The doctrine of ultra vires is a most powerful weapon to keep private corporations within their legitimate spheres and to punish them for violations of their corporate charters, and it probably is not invoked too often . . .

”American Express Co. v. Citizens State Bank, 194 NW 430. “Mr. Justice Marshall said: The doctrine of ultra vires is a most powerful weapon to keep private corporations within their legitimate spheres and to punish them for violations of their corporate charters, and it probably is not invoked too often .

ULTRA VIRES. A term used to express the action of a corporation which is beyond the powers conferred upon it by its charter, or the statutes under which it was instituted. 13 Amer. Law Rev. 632.

"Ultra vires" is sometimes applied to an act which, though within the powers of a corporation, is not binding on it because the consent or agreement of the corporation has not been given in the

manner required by its constitution. Thus, where a company delegates certain powers to its directors, all acts done by the directors beyond the scope of those powers are "ultra vires" , and not binding on the company, unless it subsequently ratifies them. Sweet. (Black's law first edition 1891 pg. 1198)